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sŝƐŝƚ ŽƵƌ ǁĞďƐŝƚĞ ĨŽƌ &Z ũŽď ƚŽŽůƐ
139 DHA (139 342)
Did you know that any changes in your rank or your
serving partner’s rank could affect your housing
Your Rent Allowance (RA) or Service Residence (SR)
entitlement calculation is based on the senior member’s
rank. This means that applications for housing must be
completed with the senior ranking member’s details.
What changes could affect you?
If the senior ranking member discharges or goes on
Leave Without Pay, your subsidised housing will be
affected. It could also be affected if your rank changes.
Any change to your contributions will usually come into
effect from the date of rank change or from the date you
or your partner goes on Leave Without Pay.
Here’s what to do:
To ensure your housing entitlement is correct, you will
need to inform Defence Housing Australia (DHA) if you or
your partner’s circumstances change. You can do this in
Your housing update
Defence Housing Australia
Did you know your rank can
affect your housing?
The contribution for members
with dependants is detailed in
PACMAN volume 2, chapter 7,
part 5, division 9, paragraph
Where rank changes occur you
must notify DHA in writing, as
detailed in PACMAN volume 2,
chapter 7, part 5, division 9,
paragraph 4.5.49 and 7.5.50.
Going on Leave Without Pay?
You must notify DHA in writing,
as detailed in PACMAN volume
2, chapter 7, part 5, division 9,
paragraph 7.5.51 and 7.5.52.
6/12 ISSUE 90
TELEPHONE: 1800 558 555 (confidentiality assured)
Seaworthy is produced by the Directorate of Navy Safety Systems in the interests of promoting
safety in the Navy. The contents do not necessarily reflect Service policy and, unless stated
otherwise, should not be construed as orders, instructions or directives – KEEP NAVY SAFE.
WHEN looking at accidents, it’s com-
mon to blame human error or an unsafe
act as being the direct cause.
However, it is well established that
accidents are rarely due to a single
cause, or in most instances, even a single
Professor James Reason developed
the ‘Swiss cheese’ model of accident
causation, where accidents are the result
of a series of failures across a number of
In order for a n accident to occur, the
failures – like holes in multiple layers of
Swiss cheese – must align between ele-
ments, allowing a path for an accident to
A recent maritime safety case study
puts the Swiss cheese theory into per-
In October last year, an explosion
occurred on the Panama registered
woodchip carrier Universal Gloria.
The third mate suffered serious burns
to his face and hands while attempting
to charge oxygen breathing apparatus
(OBA) with an air compressor.
OBA sets are filled with oxygen,
allowing extended usage times without
They can only be filled with oxygen,
unlike conventional breathing appara-
tus sets on board, which are charged
through an air compressor with air taken
directly from the atmosphere.
The third mate incor rectly connected
an OBA set to a regular air compressor
when he noticed the cylinder pressu re
When he opened the charge hose valve
the oxygen f rom the cylinder became
superheated as pressure equalised within
the compressor hose and filter.
Once combined with the residual oil
in the hose line, the ignition threshold
was reached, causing a violent explosion.
It would be easy to say that the third
mate caused the accident, however, h is
actions were the final in a series of fail-
ures that allowed the accident to take
The OBA sets had different threads
to prevent the incorrect connection to an
However, in this case, there was an
adaptor on hand that was designed to
connect a different branded compressed
air cylinder, so allowed for con nection
of the incompatible OBA set.
The adaptor was not required on
board the ship, but it had been left with
the air compressor.
The third mate did not know the dif-
ference between oxygen and air or of the
danger in charging an OBA cylinder with
an air compressor – he believed oxygen
and air were the same thing.
The oxygen cylinder was not clearly
labelled to indicate its contents or charg-
The third mate did not have suffi-
cient knowledge to enable him to safely
operate and maintain the ship’s oxygen
The ship’s safety documentation did
not provide the crew with appropriate
guidance in relation to the operation and
maintenance of the oxygen breathing
apparatus and the crew were not appro-
priately trained or drilled in their opera-
tion and maintena nce.
Ultimately, it was the third mate’s
actions that resulted in the explosion but
there were a number of cont ributing fac-
tors that aligned to provide an incident
path for the resulting accident to occur.
The Swiss cheese effect
The Swiss cheese model
WHAT’S TO BLAME:
Some holes are due to
active failures while others
are due to latent conditions.
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